A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to determine the effects of protocolized sedation in mechanically ventilated adult intensive care unit patients. Six randomized controlled trials and 1243 patients were studied. The results showed that protocolized…
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There have been multiple strategies to determine the “optimal PEEP” in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).  One strategy is to perform a recruitment maneuver using an “Open Lung” approach and neuromuscular blockade (with pressures as high as 60 cm H2O),…
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Beta2-agonists and anticholinergics are the initial bronchodilators Prednisone 1 mg/kg/day (up to 60 mg/day) or steroid equivalent for moderate-severe exacerbations x 5-7 days Antibiotics indicated for moderate-severe exacerbations with pulmonary infiltrate or sputum purulence –procalcitonin level >0.25 ng/mL supports antibiotic…
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The overall incidence of extubation failure is about 15%, but this failure rate may be increased in patients with high risk characteristics.  Patients who have prolonged mechanical ventilation, those with high cuff pressures, poor cuff leaks, and those who have…
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Definitions Presumed source with SIRS criteria = infection Infection with life-threatening organ dysfunction = sepsis Sepsis refractory to intravenous fluid challenge = septic shock Treatment of sepsis or septic shock Draw blood cultures x 2 Analyze any fluid that may…
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Complications from long-term deep sedation and the lack of adequate pain control for mechanically ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients has resulted in the development of sedation protocols emphasizing pain control over sedation. These protocols use either remifentanyl or fentanyl.…
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Are MRSA Antibiotics Overprescribed for Community-Acquired Pneumonia? – NEJM Journal Watch Nearly 30% of hospitalized CAP patients received antibiotics for MRSA, even though fewer than 1% had MRSA-associated CAP. A recent multicenter, prospective, active-surveillance study of 2259 patients hospitalized with…
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Presently, the mortality of patients in the hospital with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is higher than 40%.  A sixteen month long observational study was conducted to determine if certain cutoff points of PaO2/FiO2 (less than or equal to 200…
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A recent meta-analysis and systematic review of 13 randomized, placebo-controlled trials analyzed over 2000  patients hospitalized for CAP.  The analysis examined whether the addition of systemic corticosteroids doses (20–60 mg of prednisone or steroid equivalent) to empiric antibiotics was any better than…
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Based on meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is the only intervention that improves mortality in patients hospitalized for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, many patients who are eligible for this intervention go…
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Prone positioning has been in existence since 1974; however, the equipment and technique has now been refined and has proven to decrease mortality in severe ARDS.  Prone positioning decreases the amount of alveolar collapse and decreases V/Q mismatching in patients…
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CHOOSING WISELY RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE CRITICAL CARE SOCIETIES COLLABORATIVE 1. Don’t order diagnostic tests at regular intervals (such as every day), but rather in response to specific clinical questions. Many diagnostic studies (including chest radiographs, arterial blood gases, blood chemistries…
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This is an excellent review on the diagnosis, triage, and management of both community-acquired pneumonia and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP).  This review also contains important information about clinical scoring tools to know which patients require admission, which patients require ICU care,…
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The American Association of Respiratory Care developed a clinical policy describing the benefit of continuous capnography during mechanical ventilation.  This policy statement recommends continuous capnometry during mechanical ventilation for a number of reasons:   1.  It confirms that the endotracheal…
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