This blog will offer some expert recommendations to help guide the safety of hospital procedures at different platelet and coagulation profiles.  Unfortunately, there are no strong evidence-based guidelines for hospital procedures dedicated to the study of patients with decompensated cirrhosis.…
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Patients diagnosed with cirrhosis are regularly admitted and readmitted to the hospital. Statistics show that the 90-day readmission rate is approximately 50%. A recent study analyzed the rate of readmission at 30-days and 90-days and the relevant causes among patients…
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A historical myth in procedural medicine is the operator should limit removal of pleural fluid to 1.5 L during thoracentesis because of the risk of re-expansion pulmonary edema or pneumothorax.  New evidence supports safety of large volume thoracentesis until no…
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Based on several studies, central line malposition occurs between 3.3-6.7% of the time.1  The historical recommendation is that malpositioned central lines should not be used for long periods of time, if at all.  The basis for these recommendations is based…
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Where to place a central venous catheter is a decision driven mainly by individual preference. The limited evidence available has not established any site as superior; the subclavian position has been reported as being less infection-prone, but more likely to cause…
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A study from an urban EM residency program determined that in-plane ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization is superior to out-of-plane ultrasound-guided central line placement. This study was only a single center study that was a randomized crossover study of ER residents…
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The internal jugular or subclavian veins have fewer combined mechanical or infectious complications for central venous catheter insertions compared with femoral vein CVC placements.  Numerous organizations have proposed guidelines or central line bundles that have advocated preferential use of the…
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A study from an urban EM residency program determined that in-plane ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization is superior to out-of-plane ultrasound-guided central line placement. This study was only a single center study that was a randomized crossover study of ER residents…
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How do we assess a cirrhotic patients bleed risk prior to a planned bedside procedure?  Can our standard platelet count and coagulation studies, prothrombin time (PT/INR) and partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), accurately predict bleed risk in cirrhotic patients?  The quick…
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This blog summarizes a recent update reviewing current management recommendations for hepatic hydrothorax (HH).  Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication of decompensated cirrhosis with portal hypertension.  Sixty percent of patients accumulate both ascitic fluid and pleural fluid as a result of portal…
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In recent years, the dogma regarding large-volume crystalloid resuscitation in trauma patients has changed, with increased emphasis on including plasma and platelets in addition to red blood cells in the immediate resuscitation protocol. The long-awaited PROPPR trial compared the safety and…
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Video Laryngoscopy Is Superior to Direct Laryngoscopy for Failed Intubation Attempts in the ER Although video laryngoscopy has repeatedly been shown to be superior to direct laryngoscopy, there has not yet been any specific directive instructing emergency department (ED) intubators…
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The Difficult Airway Society (DAS) has recently published new guidelines for awake tracheal intubation (ATI) in adults.  When performed correctly, ATI has a favorable safety profile for patients with an anticipated difficult airway.  The guidelines cover the indications for ATI,…
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According to AASLD Practice Guidelines, all patients with cirrhotic ascites admitted to the hospital should have a diagnostic paracentesis to rule out spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Treatment of SBP requires cefotaxime plus albumin 1.5 gm/kg on the first day and…
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This blog summarizes the recent European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines on the management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhotic ascites occurs as a consequence of portal…
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